Ivy (heder) has been known to mankind for a very long time. In ancient Egypt, this liana was a cult object and symbolized immortality, and in Greece wreaths were woven from ivy, which were worn at feasts.
In those days, it was argued that a twig of ivy, laid on the chest of a sleeping woman, would not allow her beauty and youth to quickly fade.
Heder was also mentioned in works of art: on the grave of Isolde and Tristan, a vine and a whip of ivy intertwined with each other.
Hedera perfectly cleans the air in the room, absorbing harmful vapors, so it should be in every kitchen. You will learn about what types and varieties of ivy are, how to grow a vine in your apartment and how to care for it, you will learn from our article.
Planting and caring for ivy
- Bloom: decorative deciduous plant.
- Lighting: for forms with green leaves - partial shade or shade, for variegated - bright diffused light or light partial shade.
- Temperature: during the growing season - 22-24 ˚C, in winter coolness is needed, but not lower than 13 ˚C.
- Watering: regular, moderate.
- Air humidity: increased. The plant needs daily spraying, and if kept in a warm room in winter, the pot should be kept on a pallet with wet pebbles.
- Top dressing: from March to August, twice a month, with complex fertilizers for decorative deciduous plants.
- Rest period: in winter.
- Transfer: young plants are transplanted annually, adults - as needed, when the pot becomes small.
- Reproduction: mainly vegetative: layering, shoots, apical cuttings.
- Pests: aphids, scale insects, false scales, cyclamen and spider mites, mealybugs, greenhouse thrips.
- Diseases: loss of decorativeness due to poor care and improper maintenance.
Read more about growing ivy below.
Plant ivy (Latin Hedera) the genus of the Aralievye family is a climbing evergreen shrub, reaching a height of thirty meters in nature. There are about fifteen species of ivy that grow in the subtropics of Europe, Asia, Africa and the Americas, mainly in shady humid forests. The ivy flower has been known to mankind since time immemorial: among the ancient Greeks it was an emblem of fun and love, a plant of Bacchus himself - poets wore ivy wreaths at celebrations and feasts. Evergreen ivy was also popular as a medicinal plant. Modern designers are actively using ivy in floristry, and in the design of rooms and gardens. In indoor culture, climbing ivy is also popular, since both a novice florist and even a child can handle plant care.
The houseplant ivy is most often Hedera helix, with a climbing stem and dense brushes of aerial roots on the underside of the stem that attach the Hedera ivy to its support. The leaves of this species are alternate, simple, shiny, leathery, lobed, dark green with lighter veins, but there are also variegated forms. An ivy leaf can have three to seven lobes. Small, greenish-yellow flowers are collected in umbellate, corymbose or racemose inflorescences, but you will not see them - ivy does not bloom at home, so you do not have to collect ivy seeds.
Indoor ivy flower has more than a hundred forms, which differ in size, shape of leaves and their colors.
Ivy - can I keep at home
Ivy has long been known to mankind for its healing properties used in folk medicine. Ivy is also used as a raw material for the manufacture of medicinal products and cosmetics. Scientists have proven that the substances contained in the wood of the plant successfully relieve spasms, so wood preparations are used in the treatment of acute bronchitis. And ivy leaves have antifungal, antitumor, antibacterial and expectorant properties. Softening gels made from ivy leaves and wood are used as an additional agent in the treatment of purulent dermatoses, obesity and cellulite.
However, be careful, because poison ivy, or rather, its fruits, which children mistake for edible berries, cause poisoning.
The OBS Agency (one grandmother said) claims that the indoor flower ivy is a muzhegon, an energy vampire, that it attracts loneliness and other misfortunes to the house, and if you do not like this plant, you can convince yourself and others that you do not want to keep ivy at home because you love your husband and take care of your family. But historical documents claim that in the ancient world - Greece and Rome - ivy just symbolized fidelity and happiness in marriage, and in the east it is still considered a source of vital energy. Which signs to believe, choose for yourself.
On my own I will add that caring for home ivy is so simple, and its decorative qualities are so undeniably high that it would be foolish to refuse to grow ivy in an apartment. In addition, ivy can be kept at home in a place where he will not have time to absorb your energy (if he does it at all) - for example, in the kitchen, where ivy will have to cleanse the air from carcinogens and other harmful impurities day and night.
Ivy care at home
If you don't know how to care for ivy, heed our recommendations. One of the main advantages of ivy is its shade tolerance, because it is a rather rare quality for plants. Home ivy can be placed in the back of the room and it will feel great there. This, unfortunately, does not apply to variegated forms, which just need good lighting, otherwise their leaves become monotonous green.
Ivy is also undemanding to watering: it is easier for it to transfer dry soil than excess moisture in the roots, so for those who love or have to often leave home, ivy is an ideal plant. However, the plant still needs moisture, and if the bouts of your forgetfulness become too frequent, a brown edge will first appear on the edges of the leaves of the plant, and then they will begin to dry and fall off. Watering should be done in the summer so that the soil always remains slightly moist. In winter, the topsoil should dry out slightly.
Ivy does not like dry and hot air, the best temperature for a plant is 22-24 ºC. In winter, ivy can feel normal in a cool room with a temperature of at least 13 ºC, but the leaves on the stems of a plant located near heating devices grow at long intervals, which makes it unattractive, so caring for ivy in such conditions involves not only timely watering , but also daily spraying of leaves with soft, settled water.
When wintering a plant in a hot room, it is best to place the ivy in a pot on a pallet with wet pebbles or expanded clay. If the room is too hot in summer, spray the plant as often as possible, sometimes give it a shower, including for hygienic purposes.
From March to August, ivy is fed twice a month with a complex fertilizer for ornamental deciduous plants, but keep in mind that an excess of fertilizer can lead to a loss of ivy's ornamental qualities, as its leaves become too large.
Planting and transplanting
Ivy is transplanted when the roots of the plant begin to creep out of the drain hole of the pot or you notice that the plant has stopped developing. You can, of course, not wait for these hints, just transplant young plants annually, those that are older, once every two years, and in adult ivy they simply change the top layer of the substrate in the pot to a fresh one without transplanting. The soil for ivy is preferable of this composition: humus, leaf, sod, peat soil and sand in equal proportions.
The transplant is carried out after a dormant period, in March or April. The pot is chosen two to three centimeters larger in diameter than the previous one, and a thick layer of drainage material is placed in it. Before transplanting, water the plant abundantly so that the entire earthen lump gets wet, then gently transfer the plant with the lump into a new pot, add the required amount of soil, flatten the soil surface, leaving a groove for water under the walls of the pot. After transplanting, the plant should be watered and sprayed, and then put in a permanent place, protected from drafts and direct sunlight.
Reproduction of ivy at home
Ivy propagation is carried out by vegetative methods: cuttings, shoots and layering.
Propagation by apical cuttings
The ends of shoots about ten centimeters long are cut off from ivy, planted in a mixture of sand with deciduous soil, covered with a transparent cap - a plastic bag or glass jar - and kept at a temperature of 15-20 ºC, keeping the soil moist, but not wet. It is best to root those cuttings on which there were aerial roots before planting. Cuttings that have taken root are transplanted into pots with a soil mixture for adult ivy, several pieces. Ivy cuttings root well in water.
Reproduction by shoots
There is a way to grow multiple shoots from one. To do this, cut off a whole ivy shoot with eight to ten leaves, make a longitudinal incision along it, lay the shoot on the sand with an incision down and press it to a depth of 1.5-2 cm, leaving the leaves above the ground. During germination, care must be taken to keep the soil moist. Within two weeks, roots should form along the entire length of the shoot, as evidenced by the growing tip of the shoot. The shoot is removed from the sand, cut into pieces with roots and at least one leaf, and planted three in one pot with a diameter of 7-9 cm.
Reproduction by layering
How to grow ivy from a cut? In the same way as from the shoot, only in this case the shoot is not separated from the mother plant before the start of the process and is not pressed into the soil, but a longitudinal incision is made on it and pressed to the soil surface with staples. The layering is separated when roots appear throughout the shoot, and transplanted into a separate pot.
Pests and diseases
Ivy is a plant that is quite resistant to disease. He only gets into trouble if you chronically neglect the conditions for growing the plant. So, with a lack of lighting, variegated ivy forms lose their variegation and become green, and chronically dry soil can cause leaf fall, just as too dry indoor air can cause bald stems with sparse and small foliage.
Due to your oversight, ivy is also affected by harmful insects - aphids, scale insects, cyclamen or spider mites. Usually they all appear on the plant if the room humidity is too low. You can fight these parasites by carefully spraying the plant with actellik solution at the rate of 1-2 ml of the drug per liter of water. In addition to actellik, karbofos and aktara show good results in the fight against the above pests.
If after the first spraying you could not achieve success, repeat the procedure after 3-4 days. If this is not enough, instead of spraying, rinse all the foliage in a basin with an insecticide solution.
Types and varieties of ivy
We bring to your attention the most popular types and varieties of ivy in room culture.
Common ivy (Hedera helix)
Flexible, creeping evergreen vine with alternate simple three to five-lobed leathery dark green leaves with a network of light green veins. Has a huge number of forms.
The most interesting varieties:
- Kholibra - dwarf ivy with tiny three-lobed leaves with a whitish pattern;
- Eva varieties and Mona lisa - ivy with almost yellow leaves;
- varieties Jubilee, Glacier - ivy with spotted leaves;
- grade Ivalace - ivy with corrugated leaves;
- Harald variety - ivy with oval, almost rounded leaves.
Colchis ivy (Hedera colchica)
Also an evergreen climbing plant with thin shoots, large shiny leathery leaves of dark green color up to 25 cm long and up to 17 cm wide, sometimes three-lobed, but more often whole, smelling of nutmeg.
- Dentata Variegata - variety with oval-shaped leaves and pale yellow edges;
- Sulfur Heart - large leaves of this variety are light green in color, slightly curled upside down, and yellow-green stripes run along the veins;
- Arborescens - light green drooping shoots and oval leaves.
Canary ivy (Hedera canariensis)
An evergreen climbing plant with dark green leaves up to 15 cm wide and up to 12 cm long with light green triangular veins. It is used for interior decoration, ampel, ground cover and vertical gardening. It has no aerial roots, so it needs strong support and regular pruning.
- Gloire de marengo - a large climbing plant with reddish stems and large three-lobed shiny leaves with whitish-green strokes along the edges;
- Striata - variety with light - green or yellow - spots in the middle of the leaves;
- Gold leaf - two-colored green leaves cast gold in strong light;
- Brigitte - a variety with small, dense star-shaped leaves on graceful shoots - looks best in suspended structures.
Pastukhov's ivy (Hedera pastuchowii)
It is also used for decorative gardening, but it is rarely found in culture, especially indoor, therefore it is listed in the Red Book of Dagestan and Russia. Its leaves are solid, thin and leathery, up to 10 cm long. The upper part of the leaf plate is brighter, the lower one is lighter. On the lower shoots, the leaves are round, heart-shaped, on the upper ones - different: broad-ovate, lanceolate, rhombic and ovate-rhombic.
In addition to the species described, there are also Swedish ivy, English ivy and Devil's ivy in culture.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the Araliaceae family
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Indoor Plants Information
- Information about Vines
Sections: Indoor plants Ornamental deciduous Indoor shrubs Shade-tolerant Indoor vines Aralia Plants on P
It is one of the creeping bushes that cling to walls and trees with adventitious roots. The leaves have a dense skin and are of two types:
- on branches without flowers - angular-lobed foliage, dark green
- on flowering branches - leaves are long and whole, light green in color.
Heder flowers are rather small, clustered at the top of the branches. The bract is small or completely absent; the corolla consists of five petals. Fruits are small berries of black or yellowish color. The seed has an elongated embryo.
Indoor ivy description
Ivy belongs to the Araliaceae family and is an evergreen shrub plant that can form shoots over 30 m long. It is also known as hedera and is a liana-like plant. In its genus, there are about 15 varieties that can be found in the subtropical regions of Europe, Asia, Africa and America. In the natural environment, it can be seen in shady forests, where it braids tree trunks with its shoots.
A characteristic feature of this plant is the presence of a large number of small shoots on the shoots, which are in the form of hooks and with the help of which the shoots cling to any surface and rise up to a height of more than 15 m.In addition, these shoots provide the culture with additional nutrients. Plants are capable of covering buildings, trees and hedges, clinging to any cracks or gouges. Common ivy is grown at home, which is used to create compositions in combination with other flowers and to form green walls.
The leaf plates consist of three or five lobes, colored dark green and have light streaks along the surface of the leaves. The leaves are very close to each other and take on an oval shape as they mature. It should be borne in mind that the configuration and color of the leaf plates can be completely different, depending on the type of ivy. The most popular and valuable species are those that have cream, yellow or white spots on the surface, which form a beautiful pattern in combination with pronounced veins. However, it should be borne in mind that such species are demanding in care and need more lighting, additional lighting and some features in the microclimate.
During flowering, a large number of small flowers are formed, which form umbellate inflorescences and have a light green color. Such inflorescences do not have any special decorative effect. At the end of flowering, berry-shaped fruits with a circumference of 1 cm are formed, which change their color from green to black during the ripening process. Flowering culture is observed only in wild-growing old specimens. Home-grown crops do not bloom.
Another useful property of the plant is its ability to purify the air. The leaves contain elements that are also used to treat certain diseases in traditional medicine. They express antispasmodic, antifungal, expectorant, antitumor, antibacterial action. It is widely used in the treatment of acute bronchopulmonary diseases, as well as cellulite, obesity and skin diseases. It should be borne in mind that ivy fruits contain toxic substances, so it should be placed out of the reach of children. When absorbed by appetizing berries, they can cause severe poisoning.
Indoor ivy care at home
In order for ivy to form a beautiful lush crown, it will need special care. It is not considered too difficult, but it is important for the health of the plant to regularly perform the procedures it needs.
Ivy quickly adapts to both the sun and partial shade. Due to the length of its stems and the tightness of the window sill, the plant is often kept away from the window, using it as an ampelous one. But such conditions do not allow ivy to bloom. If the formation of inflorescences and fruits is considered necessary, then you will have to find a sunnier place for the heder. Usually in the summer it is kept on the windows of the south-west or south-east direction, and in the winter - on the south. But foliage should be protected from direct rays and overheating.
Variegated ivy forms are more dependent on sunlight. In a too dark corner, they can lose their color.
For a cheder, the temperature is optimal in the range from +21 to +25 degrees. In the summer, it is recommended to ventilate the room with the plant - this will contribute to more intensive growth and formation of the ivy crown.
Keep ivy in cooler conditions during the winter. The critical temperature for ivy is considered to be +12 degrees. Such conditions can lead to the development of diseases or even death of the plant. If the pot with ivy is on the windowsill, in winter, when it blows cold from the window, it is recommended to insulate the container or put it in a warmer place.
The soil in the ivy pot should be moderately moist, especially in hot weather. Usually it is watered after the soil is half or a third dry, but it should not be allowed to completely dry out. In winter and in cold weather, the number of waterings is slightly reduced. Excessive bay can kill the flower.
Although ivy is quite drought tolerant, lack of moisture can affect the appearance of the plant. Its foliage can begin to dry at the edges, depriving the bush of its former attractiveness. Usually, well-settled soft water is used for irrigation - plain or boiled.
Due to the fact that ivy foliage collects dust and harmful microparticles of home air, it must be cleaned regularly. The plant can be washed under running water or each leaf can be wiped with a sponge about once every couple of weeks. You should not use special means for giving shine to the foliage.
If the apartment is hot and dry, you can increase the humidity level by spraying. You do not need to do this every day - a couple of times a week is enough. This will protect the foliage of the plant from drying out.
Suitable ivy soil should contain sand, earth mix, and peat. The plant is not too demanding on the composition of the soil, so ready-made universal mixtures can also be used for it. Slightly acidic soil works well for hedera. Before planting, it can be additionally disinfected with a manganese solution.
The roots of the cheder do not go deep into the soil, so you can choose small, medium-sized containers for it. Their diameter should be greater than their height. Place at least 5 cm of drainage on the bottom of the pot.
Hereda is fed 2 times a month, using universal formulations for plants with beautiful leaves or alternating organic and mineral fertilizing. Regular application of nutrients helps to accelerate growth rates and improve plant immunity. In addition to the usual, foliar feeding is also carried out.
In winter, the number of dressings is reduced by 2 times - the growth of the heder slows down at this time. An excess of fertilizer can cause foliage to turn yellow, and an excessive amount of nitrogen can turn variegated leaf blades into simple green ones.
Important! An excess of fertilizer leads to the fact that ivy leaves can noticeably increase in size.
Ivy transplant is carried out depending on the growth rate of its roots. Spring is considered the best time for this. The young plant can be moved annually, at the same time replacing the potted substrate. Heders from 5 years old and older are transplanted 2-3 times less often when their roots begin to be seen in the drainage holes. A transplant is also required if the bush has slowed down or its foliage has begun to fade. Plants over 10 years of age are simply replaced by the topsoil.
Heder is moved along with the earthen lump, trying to maintain the same level of deepening.
Caring for a chedera involves regularly pruning its long stems. This procedure helps to form a more beautiful and neat crown, as well as stimulate the growth process. Old ivy can be rejuvenated by completely pruning the entire stems, which are then planted in a single container.
In order for the ivy to begin to form side shoots, its top is pinched at the required height. If the crown becomes too lush and ceases to fit within the specified framework, it can be thinned out by removing excess branches and sprinkling the sections with charcoal powder.
Although ivy is often considered an exclusively ornamental plant, it can sometimes bloom. This happens about once every 8 years. For a fairly long (up to 50 years) plant life in the natural environment, this period is not so rare.
To achieve flowering of a home heder, you need to follow the correct lighting regime. The light hitting the plant should be bright, but diffused. During the flowering period, most of the species form small inflorescences-baskets or umbrellas, collected from beige or yellowish flowers with an unpleasant odor. Purple or blue berries that form on them later are considered poisonous.
To prevent ivy from dropping the buds, you should not disturb the pot during the period of their formation.
The dormant period of the cheder is poorly expressed - in winter it does not change its appearance, but simply slows down the growth rate slightly. Because of this, the plant begins to be watered a little less often, as well as fed. Hedera usually rests from late autumn to early March.
Plant propagation methods
Indoor ivy species in an apartment reproduce by vegetative methods.
For the procedure, 10 cm long apical cuttings with aerial roots are harvested. After cutting, the planting material is buried in a soil mixture of sand and leafy earth, where it is contained under a film in a warm room. During rooting, constant soil moisture is maintained. When the cuttings take root, they are planted in separate flowerpots in several pieces.
There is a way to get two or more plants from one shoot at once. For this:
- A shoot with 8 leaf plates is cut off.
- An incision is made along the entire length, with which the shoot is placed on the sand, after which it is pressed into a depth of 15 - 20 mm.
- After rooting, the shoot is divided into parts with roots and one leaf, which are planted in several pieces in small containers with a fertile soil mixture.
The procedure is similar to the one described above. The main differences are that the cuttings are pinned with staples to the ground and are not separated from the mother plant until rooting.
Ivy care at home
Growing, planting, and caring for your home ivy is pretty straightforward. But for those who do not know how to care for ivy, we will give detailed recommendations:
- Indoor hedera is a shade-tolerant plant, so it can be grown in the back of the room. However, varieties and species with variegated leaves require good lighting, otherwise their foliage will simply turn green. But with the help of a green-leaved plant, you can beautifully decorate a wall, a rack, a green corner, which is far from windows.
- Home ivy is suitable for those who often leave home, since it is completely unpretentious to watering. It will be harmed by increased soil moisture, while it tolerates dry soil well. But still, do not forget to water the plant after the top layer of soil dries out in the pot. Especially it is necessary to monitor soil moisture in summer. During this period of time, the soil should be slightly damp all the time. If the soil dries out frequently, the edges of the leaves will first begin to dry, then the leaves will completely dry out and fall off.
- The indoor plant grows well and does not lose its decorative effect at an air temperature of + 22 ... + 24 degrees. In winter, he needs coolness and an air temperature of +13 degrees. If the bush is placed near heating devices, then during their operation, the care of the ivy should include daily spraying of the leaves and more frequent watering.
- If the room is hot, the foliage should be sprayed with water at room temperature as often as possible at any time of the year. To increase the moisture around the plant, the flower pot can be placed on a pallet with wet moss, expanded clay or pebbles. It is recommended that the plant has a warm shower at least once a month.
- With the onset of spring, they begin to feed the indoor heder with complex fertilizers, which are intended for plants with decorative leaves. This should be done no more than twice a month, otherwise, due to an excess of fertilizers, the bush will lose its decorative qualities. Top dressing is stopped in October, and again in March.
Ivy in the house: useful properties
The plant has long been known for its healing qualities, the culture is widely used in folk and traditional medicine.
On the basis of ivy, ointments, gels, syrups, decoctions are made for treatment:
- inflammatory processes
- dermatological diseases.
The leaves of the plant have antimycotic, antibacterial, antitumor properties. But ivy fruit is very poisonous. When growing it at home, it is better to remove the fruits in advance so that children do not accidentally eat them.
There is a belief that ivy is an energy vampire and "muzhegon". He attracts loneliness and other misfortunes to the house. But even in ancient Rome, this plant symbolized happiness and fidelity, and in the East it is the source of a positive aura. Therefore, to grow ivy at home or not is everyone's personal business.
Would you like to know more helpful tips on growing Ivy at home? Watch the following video: